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Artificial Intelligence (AI) and ChatGPT

Generated Images

A.I. image generators are computer programs that use algorithms to create digital images or modify previously-existing ones. These generative tools are able to create detailed images when provided just basic text description of the desired image. The generated images can be very realistic and complex, including people, landscapes and objects.  

Concerns about Generated Images

Bias: Generated images can reflect the gender, racial and cultural biases of the images the generating tool was trained on.

Copyright: This is an evolving issue, but individuals probably don't exclusively own the images produced from an image generator. Different companies have different rules for use of the resulting images. Aside from getting your instructor's approval for using any generated images, make sure you read the generating tool's policies before distributing or submitting any images you create through AI.

Manipulation: Images or videos (deepfakes) can be made to appear as if people, especially famous people, are doing or saying something they never did.

Misinformation: The ability of AI to create compelling images could lead to misinformation and disinformation (intentionally spreading false information), which can rapidly spread through social media and unreliable "news" websites.

Detecting Generated Images

New Laws - Image and Voice

States are starting to enact laws to try to address the issue of Generative AI's impact on both voice and image. For example, the State of Tennessee will enact the Ensuring Likeness Voice and Image Security Act (the ELVIS Act) on July 1, 2024. The new law extends the state’s previous laws to address new generative AI services that enable human impersonation and allow users to create simulated works in the voice of others.

Subject to fair use exemptions, the ELVIS Act provides for civil liability when someone (1) knowingly uses an individual's name, photograph, likeness, or voice for advertising without consent; (2) publishes or transmits an individual's voice or likeness with knowledge that the use was unauthorized; and (3) makes available a tool or software with the primary purpose of producing an individual's photograph, voice, or likeness, with knowledge that making available the photograph, voice, or likeness was unauthorized.

Tennessee is the first state to enact such legislation, but it will be interesting to see if other states follow.

 

Citing Generated Images

APA: To cite a generated image, set forth the author, date, title, and source elements for the software you used to generate the image. (More detailed information can be found in the "Comments" section of the APA - Citing ChatGPT Style Blog.) 

MLA: If you are incorporating an AI-generated image in your work, create a caption for it by following the guidelines in section 1.7 of the MLA Handbook. Use a description of the prompt, followed by the AI tool, version, and date created. Example: 

Fig. 1. “Pointillist painting of a sheep in a sunny field of blue flowers” prompt, DALL-E, version 2, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023, labs.openai.com/.

For further information on citing generated images, see this thorough library guide provided by the University of Victoria.